Those are issues individual districts, their schools, and their administrators need to address. I was always comfortable that the grades I gave to kids were based on what they did, how they did it, and knowing the grade honestly reflected the academic attainment and effort of the student much more than on any kind of other points they might need or want to get a credit...legitimate reasons for make-up work always accepted for a kid to succeed. Were all the kids who were sent to me from former teachers adequately prepared to do the work at my course level...most were, and some weren't. Was that the fault of former possibly, but other factors need to be considered...such as parents insisting under qualified kids be put into honors level or other high level courses. I don't deny some teachers inflate grades.
"I think I may say that of all the men we meet with, nine parts of ten are what they are, good or evil, useful or not, by their education." John Locke